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Treatment

Dr. Kevin M. Gray Q & A: A Potential Medication for Marijuana Dependence

Dr. Kevin M. Gray discusses why it’s the perfect time for discovering new evidence-based treatments for marijuana dependence. In an accompanying podcast, he discusses a clinical trial that examines NAC’s potential as a treatment for marijuana dependence among adults.

Treatment

New Approach Uses Immune Cells To Deliver Anti-HIV Medications

Nano-antiretroviral therapy (nano-ART) turns macrophages—one of the very cell types that HIV uses to replicate and spread through the body—into carriers for anti-HIV medications. The approach has the potential to make treatment for HIV easier and more effective.

Treatment

Training Workshops Boost Approval of Contingency Management

Clinicians associated with the Veterans Administration looked more favorably upon contingency management after attending training workshops on the use of the intervention. Despite being highly effective at decreasing drug use, contingency management is one of the least used among proven substance abuse treatments.

Basic Science

Gene Variants Reduce Opioid Risks

Two recent studies suggest that genotyping may enable clinicians to base therapies on individual patients’ potential responsiveness to opioid drugs’ therapeutic effects and vulnerability to their harmful effects.

NIDA @ Work

Dr. Joni Rutter Q&A: How Basic Science Is Tackling Addiction

One of NIDA’s goals is to try to understand the individual differences that contribute to whether or not someone who takes a drug will become addicted to it. Dr. Rutter’s research focuses on three types of differences: Environmental, developmental, and genetic and epigenetic.

Prevention

Expanded HIV Screening Projected To Decrease Spread of the Virus

Intensified screening for HIV among injection drug users receiving opioid agonist therapy could prevent more than twice as many new infections as current screening practice. A recent study based on mathematical modeling found that screening every 6 months instead of annually, and adding viral RNA testing to the currently used HIV antibody testing, could improve both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

Treatment

Study: Treat Jail Detainees’ Drug Abuse To Lower HIV Transmission

Active drug use before incarceration was associated with decreased engagement in HIV treatment among HIV-infected jail detainees. The severity of drug dependence correlated with worsening measures of engagement in HIV treatment. The study concludes that evidence-based treatment for drug abuse in jails may result in improved HIV treatment outcomes, which in turn could help slow HIV-transmission rates in the United States.

Treatment

Microneedle Milestone: One Week of Transdermal Drug Delivery

Microneedles are an innovative technique for delivering medications through the skin, a route that could particularly benefit patients receiving naltrexone therapy for opioid and alcohol dependence. Researchers have found a way to use the transdermal technique to deliver a single treatment of naltrexone that lasts for 7 days.

Treatment

California Reaped Large Savings by Diverting Drug-Using Offenders Into Treatment

California’s Proposition 36, which allows qualified drug offenders to enter substance use treatment rather than go to jail or prison, saved the state close to $100 million in its first year.

Treatment

HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C–Related Liver Fibrosis

Study patients with HIV­­–hepatitis C coinfection progressed to successive degrees of severity of liver fibrosis 9 years sooner than those infected with HCV alone. Further findings from the study suggest that suppressing HIV with antiretroviral medications may slow HCV-related liver fibrosis.

Treatment

Medications That Treat Opioid Addiction Do Not Impair Liver Health

A trial of buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nx) showed no evidence that the medicine was associated with liver damage. The drug gave results similar to those of methadone. The study data indicate that although most patients can be treated safely with either methadone or Bup/Nx without major concern for liver injury, clinicians are advised to continue to monitor the liver health of their patients who are on methadone or Bup/Nx therapy.

Treatment

Naltrexone Implant Outperforms Daily Pill in Russian Trial

More than half of heroin-addicted patients treated with naltrexone via an implanted delivery device maintained abstinence throughout a 6-month clinical trial in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The implant device, which releases a steady dose of naltrexone continuously for 2 months, averted relapse to heroin use three times as effectively as daily oral doses of the medication.

Epidemiology

Study Parses Comorbidity of Cannabis Use and Social Anxiety

People with cannabis use disorder (CUD) are likely also to have social anxiety disorder (SAD), and comorbid SAD is associated with greater severity of cannabis-related problems. These findings highlight the importance of assessing CUD patients for SAD, as that disorder can be both a contributing cause and a consequence of CUD. Treating both disorders may be a key to helping patients recover from each.

NIDA @ Work

Dr. Marilyn Huestis Q & A: Matching Drug Effects to Drug Concentrations

Dr. Marilyn Huestis of NIDA’s Intramural Research Program talks about conducting research on drug effects with human subjects, developing tests to help law enforcement identify drugged drivers, and an assay to help identify children whose prenatal exposure to anti-HIV drugs may put them at risk for adverse developmental outcomes.

Treatment

Oxycodone Vaccine Passes Early Tests

A new vaccine hindered the often-abused prescription opioids oxycodone and hydrocodone from entering the brain and suppressed one of the drugs’ signature central nervous system effects. The findings warrant continued development of the vaccine as a potential aid in the treatment of oxycodone and hydrocodone abuse and dependence.

Treatment

Receptor May Underlie Gender Differences in Response to Smoking Cessation

Men benefit more than women from nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation because nicotine affects a key neuroreceptor differently in the two sexes, a NIDA-sponsored study suggests. The findings highlight the need for alternative therapies for women smokers, and point to the female hormone progesterone as a potential therapeutic target.

Treatment

Counselors’ Perceptions of Organizational Justice and Support Predict Job Turnover

Forty-seven percent of substance abuse treatment counselors in a national sample left their jobs voluntarily within 3 years.

Treatment

Gabapentin Tested To Treat Marijuana Dependence

Marijuana-dependent outpatients who were treated with the medication gabapentin in a pilot clinical trial reduced their cannabis use more and reported fewer symptoms of drug withdrawal than patients who received a placebo.

Basic Science

Nicotine Makes Mouse Brain More Responsive to Cocaine

Nicotine sensitizes the mouse brain to the addictive effects of cocaine, according to recent NIDA-supported research. The results accord with the hypothesis that a person’s initial use of an addictive substance physiologically sensitizes his or her brain to the rewarding and addictive effects of other substances. If the findings carry over to people, then preventing youths from smoking might reduce their vulnerability to cocaine abuse and addiction, and cocaine-dependent individuals might ease their path to recovery by quitting smoking.

Treatment

Staff Stress Affects Patients’ Engagement in Therapy

Several factors contribute to treatment professionals’ stress and burnout, including how much influence they feel they have in their organization and their caseload. Surprisingly, a NIDA-supported study found that the link between staff stress and burnout was weaker in programs with higher patient caseloads than those with lower caseloads. In addition, program administrators can help counselors reduce their stress by giving them a voice in organizational policies and procedures.  

Director's Perspective

Seek-Test-Treat-Retain To Stop the Spread of HIV

Despite the advances in treatment and prevention, roughly 50,000 new HIV infections still occur annually in the Nation. Research, in large part supported by NIDA, has produced a strategy to address this circumstance and break the epidemiological impasse: seek out HIV-infected individuals, particularly those in “hard-to-reach” groups that have minimal contact with the health care system; offer them HIV testing and treatment; and provide support to help them stay in treatment.

Treatment

Brief Intervention Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use

NIDA-funded researchers have gathered evidence that brief interventions can help adolescents move away from drug use. In a clinical trial, middle and high school students markedly reduced their substance use following two 60-minute sessions that combined motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy.

Treatment

Animation: Building an Anti-Drug Vaccine

The immune system has an extraordinary ability to recognize compounds foreign to the body and eliminate them. NIDA-sponsored scientists are working to harness this ability to create vaccines that will protect individuals against the psychogenic and addictive effects of abused drugs. This animation shows one of the most promising strategies, which has already yielded partial success in producing effective vaccines against nicotine, cocaine, and other drugs.

Bulletin Board

Dr. Charles O’Brien Receives the James B. Isaacson Award for Lifetime Achievement

NIDA researcher Dr. Charles O’Brien recently received the James B. Isaacson Award for a lifetime of research on the biological basis of alcoholism.

NIDA @ Work

Q&A: Dr. David Thomas

NIDA Program Officer Dr. David Thomas speaks about the intertwined problems of pain and prescription opioid abuse, as well as the research supported by NIDA and the National Institutes of Health to address these problems.

Treatment

Animal Research Advances Effort to Develop Vaccines Against Cocaine, Heroin Abuse

New vaccines that aim to promote recovery from cocaine and heroin abuse showed promise in animal testing. Both vaccines induced rats’ immune system to produce high titers of antibodies that inhibit the target drug from reaching the brain. The rats’ behaviors when given access to the target drug indicated that the vaccines reduced the reinforcing effects that, in recovering people, can cause lapses to turn into relapses.

Treatment

Few Teens With Prescription Opioid Use Disorders Receive Treatment

Fewer than 12 percent of adolescents who meet diagnostic criteria for prescription opioid abuse or dependence receive any treatment, according to an analysis of data from the 2005 to 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The most common reason the adolescents gave for not receiving treatment was their lack of perceived need for it.

Treatment

Intervention Boosts Treatment Participation, Abstinence Among Depressed Women

Intensive case management was more effective in increasing treatment engagement and reducing alcohol consumption among depressed participants than among those who were not depressed, according to a followup analysis of a substance abuse treatment study involving women on welfare.
Treatment

More Convenient Preparations of Buprenorphine Pass Test

Soluble-film preparations of buprenorphine suppressed heroin abusers’ withdrawal symptoms with no serious side effects in a recent clinical trial. They dissolved more rapidly in the mouth than the pill form of the medication, providing faster relief.

Director's Perspective

The Present and Promise of mHealth

NIDA researchers have developed a computer program that motivates and encourages treatment-seeking when an individual is in a primary care physician’s waiting room. Users of the program, called Video Doctor, enter information on a portable device and receive feedback about health risks related to their drug abuse, along with advice, immediately prior to seeing their physician.

Treatment

Training Gaps for Evidence-Based Practices

Ninety percent of privately funded substance abuse treatment programs in the United States offer cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)...

Treatment

Buprenorphine During Pregnancy Reduces Neonate Distress

Sublingual buprenorphine is a safe and effective alternative to methadone for treating opioid dependence during pregnancy, finds the Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) study, a NIDA-supported clinical trial. Women who received either medication had similar pregnancy and birth outcomes, but infants born to women who received buprenorphine had milder symptoms of neonatal opioid withdrawal.

Bulletin Board

Dr. David Jentsch Receives the 2011 Waletzky Memorial Award

Dr. J. David Jentsch is the recipient of the 2011 Jacob P. Waletzky Memorial Award for Innovative Research in Drug Addiction and Alcoholism. Dr. Jentsch and colleagues at the University of California, Los Angeles, are studying genetic and neurochemical factors that influence individual differences in inhibitory control.
Director's Perspective

Research Focuses on Groups With High Smoking Rates

Dr. Volkow discusses NIDA’s efforts to develop effective antismoking treatments for populations with persistently high rates of smoking, such as people with psychiatric disorders, high school dropouts, and Native Americans.
Basic Science

Cognitive Strategy Reduces Craving by Altering Brain Activity

While viewing images of cigarettes, smokers reported milder cravings when they shifted their focus from the pleasures of smoking to its harmful effects. Brain imaging showed a correlation between the reductions in craving and altered activity levels in regions associated with emotional regulation and reward.

Treatment

Alleviation of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder May Improve Addiction Treatment

Women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who abused drugs responded better to substance abuse treatment after their PTSD symptoms improved, according to a recent study, which also found that reductions in substance abuse did not ease PTSD severity

Basic Science

Physical Activity Reduces Return to Cocaine Seeking in Animal Tests

Two independent animal studies suggest that aerobic exercise might help cocaine abusers establish and maintain abstinence.

Treatment

High Rates of Job Leaving Among Addiction Counselors

Substance abuse counselors and clinical supervisors disclosed high job turnover rates in a survey of 27 treatment organizations.

Treatment

Antiretroviral Treatment Reduces Spread of HIV Among Injection Drug Users

Expanded use of antiretroviral therapy in British Columbia reduced the spread of HIV among injection drug users and others in the province.
NIDA @ Work

Women and Sex/Gender Differences Research Program

NIDA’s Women and Sex/Gender Differences Research Program focuses on gender-specific addiction risk factors and treatment needs.
Basic Science

In Animals, Receptor Puts Brakes on Nicotine Consumption

New research suggests that differences in tobacco consumption reflect, in part, differences in the functional efficacy of a specific type of receptor in a pathway of the brain. In animal studies, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with the α5 subunit played a key role in producing aversive responses to nicotine, thereby dissuading further consumption of the drug.

Treatment

Financial Strain Hinders Smoking Cessation

Helping smokers deal with financial problems could improve their chances of staying abstinent after receiving treatment, according to a new study. Participants with the most financial strain had the least success in remaining abstinent.

Treatment

Stimulant Abusers' Regard for Future Improves With Memory Training

Researchers correlate stimulant abusers’ improved performance on a memory training exerc ise with reductions in delay discounting.

Basic Science

Disruption of Neuron Production in Adult Rats Increases Cocaine Taking

Drug abuse may diminish production of new neurons in the brain’s hippocampus and thereby increase vulnerability to drug addiction.
Basic Science

Molecular Alterations of DNA Contribute to Persistence of Memory

In a new series of studies tracing the molecular events that occur in the brain as memories are formed and preserved, researchers find that certain epigenetic changes may promote vulnerability to relapse.
Basic Science

Resting Brain Studies Shed New Light on Vulnerabilities

Individuals with weak signaling in a nicotine-sensitive brain circuit were more vulnerable to nicotine dependence than those with stronger signaling, according to a study conducted while the subjects’ brains were in a resting state. A second resting-state study finds that the same circuit appears to mediate dependence associated with a genetic risk factor for smoking.

Basic Science

New Class of Regulators for Addiction Genes

New studies show that microRNAs, snippets of RNA implicated in a wide variety of biological processes, are involved in promoting and inhibiting cocaine addiction. The findings could pave a new path for the development of anti-addiction therapies.
Treatment

Nanotechnology Powers Smart Skin Patch

An in vitro test demonstrates the potential of a programmable skin patch that will enable physicians to tailor transdermal medication doses to match patients' fluctuating needs.

Treatment

Medication Reduces Rats' Return to Methamphetamine Seeking

Reports on a new medication strategy under investigated in animal studies that shows promise for preventing relapse to drug abuse.

NIDA @ Work

Office Meets Dynamic Challenges of Diversity

Describes NIDA’s Special Populations Office which promotes addiction science that examines health disparities and foster research careers among members of underrepresented communities.
Basic Science

Neuropeptide Promotes Behaviors Tied to Addiction and Overeating

Reports on several studies implicating a certain neuropeptide (a signaling molecule) in fostering addition and overeating and discusses implications for addiction treatment.

Treatment

Computer-Based Intervention Offers Good Value for Money

Reports on researchers who demonstrated the economic value of a computer-based treatment as an adjunct to standard addiction therapy.

Treatment

Treatment Dropout Linked With Elevated Stress Response

Summarizes a study to determine whether a stress-related biological marker in saliva can predict how long a drug user will remain in treatment.

Treatment

Prison Use of Medications for Opioid Addiction Remains Low

Describes results from a nationwide survey among correctional facilities on the use of opioid replacement therapy for people who are addicted to heroin.

Treatment

Methamphetamine Abuse Undermines Dental Health

Describes research that sheds light on the correlation between increased dental disease and methamphetamine abuse.
Treatment

HIV Treatment Interruption Is Pervasive After Release From Texas Prisons

Describes a study revealing that HIV-infected prisoners in Texas often experience an interruption in treatment following their release and that assistance in filling out paperwork can reduce these interruptions.

Treatment

Combination Therapy Most Effective for Helping Smokers Quit

Examines results from a randomized clinical trial which found that treatment with a nicotine patch and nicotine lozenge together produced the greatest benefits in helping people quit smoking and remain abstinent.

Treatment

Brain Responds to Marijuana Cues in Familiar Manner

Researchers found that the brain activity that takes place when cues trigger marijuana cravings is similar to the activity that accompanies cravings for other drugs.
Treatment

Detoxification Services and Pharmacotherapies Lacking in Nation's Jails and Prisons

Reports findings from a survey that revealed that although substance abuse is prevalent in jails and prisons, many correctional facilities do not offer detoxification services or therapies to aid in maintaining abstinence.

Treatment

Cocaine Vaccine Helps Some Reduce Drug Abuse

Reports on the results of a clinical trial that tested the effectiveness of a cocaine vaccine designed as a therapy for cocaine abuse and plans underway for a new study of 300 patients to confirm these results.

Bulletin Board

Addiction Science Award Winners Announced

Announces the 2010 high school student recipients of the Addiction Science Awards and describes their winning addiction-focused projects.
Treatment

Deep Brain Stimulation Reduces Rats' Cocaine Seeking

Describes results from an animal study involving deep brain stimulation that holds promise as a therapy for severe cocaine addiction.
Treatment

Study Supports Methadone Maintenance in Therapeutic Communities

Describes a study that examined the effectiveness of combining two therapies for drug abuse addiction: methadone treatment and therapeutic communities, two approaches that are rarely combined.

Bulletin Board

Three Scientists Join Advisory Council

Announces three new NIDA National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse members and describes their drug abuse and addiction research experience.
Treatment

Intervention Improves Abstinence, Employment Among Welfare Recipients

Reports research to study the effectiveness of an intensive case management program to aid female substance abusers who receive welfare in staying off drugs and finding employment.
Treatment

Multidimensional Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abuse Offers Broad, Lasting Benefits

Describes findings from two randomized clinical trials showing that treatment with multidimensional family therapy resulted in fewer drug-related problems than treatment with cognitive behavior therapy.

Bulletin Board

NIDA Appoints New Director of the Intramural Research Program

Announces NIDA’s new director of its intramural research program, Antonello Bonci, M.D., a leading researcher in neuropsychopharmacology.
Treatment

Modafinil Normalizes Sleep During Early Cocaine Abstinence

Describes a study investigating the effectiveness of modafinil in enhancing sleep among cocaine abusers who are currently abstinent.
Director's Perspective

Incentives Promote Abstinence

Explores research findings on the value of motivational incentives to promote and reinforce abstinence from substances of abuse and encourage healthy behaviors.

Director's Perspective

New Tools and Strategies to Bolster Behavioral Therapy

Reports on research investigating whether certain medications might strengthen patients' understanding and memory retention.

Treatment

Medications That Normalize Brain Glutamate Reduce Drug-Seeking in Rats

Reports on two studies that demonstrate the promise of treating addiction with medications that alleviate drug-induced alterations in signaling by the neurotransmitter glutamate.
Bulletin Board

Four Scientists Receive Avant-Garde Awards

Recognizes four scientists for the 2009 Avant-Garde Award for HIV research, an award intended to stimulate groundbreaking research for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS in drug abusers.

Treatment

Treatment Patterns Vary Among People With Co-Occurring Disorders Based on Type of Treatment System Entered

Presents a summary of a study that followed individuals who entered mental health crisis or substance abuse detoxification residential centers in San Francisco and the types of treatment they received.
Bulletin Board

Dr. Kathleen T. Brady Recognized

Recognizes the 2010 Distinguished University Professor awardee, Dr. Kathleen T. Brady, who studies co-occurring substance abuse and mental health disorders and their treatment.
Treatment

Stroop Test Identifies Patients at Risk for Treatment Dropout

Reports on a study of cocaine abusers revealing that the Stroop test may predict which cocaine abusers are likely to drop out of therapy.
Bulletin Board

Dr. Phil Skolnick Now Leads NIDA's Medications Development Efforts

Announces the appointment of Dr. Phil Skolnick as NIDA’s director of the Division of Pharmacotherapies and Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse.
Treatment

Young Opioid Abusers Benefit From Extended Buprenorphine-Naloxone Treatment

Reports on a study investigating the benefits of extended opioid maintenance therapy that included drug counseling and 12 weeks of therapy with buprenorphine and naloxone.
Bulletin Board

James A. Inciardi (1939-2009)

Remembers Dr. James A. Inciardi, founder and co-director of the Center for Drug and Alcohol Studies and professor at the University of Delaware, who died on November 23, 2009.
Director's Perspective

Helping Doctors Become First Responders to Substance Abuse

Describes a toolkit that guides doctors in assessing a patient’s risk of developing an addiction problem, advising patients on the effects of substance abuse, and arranging for referrals.

Treatment

Attention to Bipolar Disorder Strengthens Substance Abuse Treatment

Describes a study of participants who had both substance abuse and bipolar disorder to investigate the potential benefits of integrated group therapy for this population.

Director's Perspective

NIDA's 35th Anniversary: Science Focused on Solutions

Commemorates NIDA’s 35th anniversary and highlights some of the major accomplishments since the Institute’s inception in 1974.

Treatment

Study Gives Green Light to Antiretroviral Medications for HIV-Infected Injection Drug Users

Reports finding from a study showing that access to antiretroviral therapies, HAART in particular, can improve the health of HIV-infected patients who have a history of injection drug use.

Treatment

Recovery Checkup System Helps Substance Abusers Who Have Mental Disorders

Reports on a posttreatment intervention to support recovery that may be especially beneficial for substance abusers with co-occurring mental disorders.

Treatment

Report Discusses Co-Occurrence of Drug Abuse and Other Mental Disorders

Describes an updated report on the co-occurrence, or comorbidity, of substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders such as ADHD, schizophrenia, and depression.

Treatment

Recovery May Be Harder for Adolescents, Animal Study Suggests

Reports animal study findings that suggest adolescents' heightened sensitivity to drug reward puts them at enhanced risk of addiction and may also increase their challenges in recovery.

Treatment

Anticipation of Methadone Enhances Brain Reactivity to Heroin Cues

Describes findings of a study revealing that images of heroin preparation and injection can incite craving and excite brain areas associated with reward-seeking even in methadone-maintained patients.

Treatment

Test Substance Attenuates Signs of Cocaine Withdrawal in Rats

Reports on several drugs that may ward off depression and anxiety, common withdrawal symptoms from cocaine, based on an animal study.

Bulletin Board

R. Christopher Pierce Receives the Waletzky Memorial Award

Announces the recipient of a 2009 award for innovation in research on drug addiction and alcoholism whose research focuses on the cellular changes that occur in response to chronic cocaine abuse.

NIDA @ Work

DESPR Identifies Drug Abuse Trends and Seeks Solutions

Discusses the work of NIDA’s Division of Epidemiology, Services and Prevention Research, organized to track drug use and provide empirically based information for researchers and service providers.
Treatment

Smokers Who Quit May Have Genetic Advantage

Describes research providing evidence that genes may influence how successful a person is in quitting smoking and which cessation technique may work best for them.

Treatment

Computer-Based Interventions Promote Drug Abstinence

Discusses the work of researchers who have begun to harness the potential of computers to reinforce and expand upon the well-established benefits of recovery therapy delivered by a counselor.

Epidemiology

Most People Entering Drug Treatment Have Additional Mental Health Problems

Highlights data on the prevalence of people entering substance abuse treatment programs who also reported having at least one co-occurring mental health problem.

Director's Perspective

Substance Abuse Among Troops, Veterans, and Their Families

Highlights the need for research to assess and find solutions to a potential rise in substance abuse among service men and women, veterans, and their families.

Treatment

Patch Delivers Buprenorphine for Heroin Detox

Describes research on the effectiveness of a buprenorphine patch to alleviate opioid withdrawal symptoms of newly abstinent heroin abusers.

Treatment

Antibody Fragment Removes Methamphetamine From the Brain

Reports animal study findings on development of an antibody fragment that rapidly removes methamphetamine from the brain and discusses implications for treatment of overdose.

Treatment

Naltrexone via Skin Patch Proves Effectiveness of New Technology

Reports on a new device that creates tiny painless punctures in the skin to allow medication to flow evenly from a skin patch into dermal capillaries and the bloodstream.

Treatment

Methadone Therapy in Prison Benefits Men a Year Out

Describes clinical trial results providing evidence that methadone maintenance to men in prison can pay off in better retention in community treatment and reduced drug abuse following their release.

Prevention

Program Reduces Girls' Delinquent Behavior

Reports on a study involving adolescent girls who were treated for delinquent behaviors in a well-supervised family setting, referred to as Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care.

Treatment

Combined Treatments Improve Dual Abstinence

Reports on a study investigating the effectiveness of a combined therapy of disulfiram and naltrexone for people who abuse cocaine and alcohol.

Treatment

Abstinent Smokers' Nicotinic Receptors Take More Than a Month to Normalize

Describes research revealing that for up to 6 weeks after smokers quit, their brain cells have more nicotine-binding receptors than nonsmokers, which may explain the struggle to quit.

Director's Perspective

Suiting Treatment to the Nature of the Disease

Highlights NIDA-sponsored research underway to understand and respond to substance abusers’ needs at all points of care, from the initial presentation for treatment through recovery.

NIDA @ Work

Research Addresses Needs of Criminal Justice Staff and Offenders

Highlights a project in which nine research centers collaborate with criminal justice partners to test science-based tools for integrating drug abuse treatment in prisons and probation and parole programs.

Treatment

Legal Pressure Increases Treatment Retention

Presents data on the length of stay in substance abuse treatment among people who were in treatment as a result of legal pressure as compared with those in treatment voluntarily.

Basic Science

Cocaine Locks Rats Into Unrewarding Behaviors

Describes research with rats to better understand cocaine’s effect on the neural signaling in the learning circuits of the brain.

Treatment

Court Mandates Help Men With Antisocial Personality Disorders Stay in Treatment

Reports on a study of men with co-occurring substance abuse and antisocial personality disorders and the potential benefit of judicially mandated addiction treatment.

Director's Perspective

Stimulus Money Will Fund a Surge in Knowledge

Describes NIDA’s drug abuse and addiction research priorities for the use of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 funds.

Treatment

Aripiprazole Prevents Rats From Resuming Cocaine Seeking

Reports on study results indicating a medication prescribed for schizophrenia and manic phases of bipolar disorder shows promise as a cocaine addiction treatment.

Treatment

Selenium Shows Promise as an Adjunct Therapy for HIV

Reports on a randomized controlled trial of HIV-infected men and women who, as a result of receiving selenium supplements, experienced lower HIV viral load and greater CD4 cell count.

Director's Perspective

New Vaccines Are Being Developed Against Addiction and Relapse

Highlights NIDA-funded research to develop vaccines against addiction to drugs such as cocaine, nicotine, phencyclidine (PCP), and methamphetamine.

Treatment

Lofexidine May Enhance Naltrexone Efficacy

Highlights results from a pilot study suggesting that lofexidine, an anti-hypertensive medication, can enhance success rates among patients taking maintenance naltrexone to avoid opioid relapse.

Treatment

Methadone Reduces Rats' Cocaine Seeking

Reports on an animal study showing that methadone, normally used as a therapy for opioid abuse, may prove to be an effective treatment for cocaine abuse.

Bulletin Board

Henry Yamamura Obituary

Remembers Henry I. "Hank" Yamamura, an eminent neuropharmacologist who pioneered radioligand binding assays, contributing valuable knowledge about neurotransmitter transporters and receptors.

Treatment

Nicotine Dependence is Linked With Mental Disorders in Pregnant Women

Reports on a link between mental disorders, including mood, anxiety, or personality disorder and nicotine dependence in pregnancy women.

Treatment

Basic Science Discoveries Yield Novel Approaches to Analgesia

Describes research to develop new compounds that match or exceed the pain relief provided by opioids while avoiding their shortcomings.

Director's Perspective

Research Breakthroughs in Drug Abuse Have Wide Applications in Other Fields

Offers an overview of some of the NIDA-supported innovative research achievements to reduce the health and social effects of drug abuse and addiction.

Treatment

New Therapy Reduces Drug Abuse Among Patients With Severe Mental Illness

Describes a new intervention that enhances recovery prospects for substance abusers whose mental illness complicates the path toward recovery.

Treatment

Intervention Improves Employment Outlook For Methadone Patients

Describes a study of unemployed methadone patients and the use of assertive outreach and motivational techniques to improve the patients’ employment outlook.

Bulletin Board

Social Neuroscience Meeting Aims To Improve Prevention, Treatment

Presents highlights of a meeting of scientists and clinicians to review research results from the field of social neuroscience, the study of how neurobiology and the social environment interact.

Treatment

Morphine Speeds AIDS Onset in Monkeys

Highlights the work of investigators who discovered key ways in which morphine may accelerate the progression of AIDS in animal studies.

NIDA @ Work

Linking NIDA to Researchers on a Global Scale

Highlights the NIDA International Program which works to strengthen international research networks, creating opportunities for global research collaboration, training, and scientific exchange.

Combination Treatment Extends Marijuana Abstinence

Describes research investigating the use of a treatment that combines vouchers and cognitive behavioral therapy as compared with the use of either treatment alone for marijuana abuse.

HIV Patients Show Better Immune Recovery With Early Initiation of HAART

Presents evidence that among men and women with HIV, those who received early initiation of HAART therapy, those with higher CD4+ levels, achieved better immune recovery.
Treatment

Bupropion Reduces Meth's Subjective Effects and Cue-Induced Craving

Describes a study investigating the use of the antidepressant bupropion as a potential therapy for methamphetamine addiction.

Treatment

Sertraline Does Not Help Methamphetamine Abusers Quit

Describes a new research finding indicating that the antidepressant sertraline (Zoloft), prescribed to relieve depression during the methamphetamine withdrawal process, may make quitting harder.

Treatment

Endorphin Derivative Inhibits Reward From Morphine and Nicotine in Rats

Describes research investigating a naturally occurring brain chemical that shows early promise as a treatment for addiction in animal studies.

Basic Science

Gene Experiment Confirms a Suspected Cocaine Action

Reports on the work of addiction researchers who are learning how acute and chronic cocaine exposure regulates certain genes, based on knowledge from developmental and cancer biology.

NIDA @ Work

NIDA's Newest Division Mines Clinical Applications From Basic Research

Describes the role of the Division of Clinical Neuroscience and Behavioral Research in NIDA’s drug abuse and addiction research plan.

Journal Highlights Global Nexus of Drug Abuse and HIV/AIDS

Reviews a journal supplement that compiles studies on drug-related HIV transmission, with a focus on injection drug use, in 16 different localities across the globe.

Interim Methadone Raises Odds of Enrolling in Comprehensive Treatment

Reports on a study to investigate the use of methadone maintenance for heroin addicts wait-listed for a treatment program to encourage their likelihood to enroll in the program.

Serotonin System May Have Potential as a Target for Cocaine Medications

Describes investigations to advance the development of potential drug abuse relapse prevention agents by targeting specific receptors of the neurochemical serotonin.
Bulletin Board

Meeting Reviews Progress On Prescription Opioid Misuse

Describes a meeting of researchers and clinicians who gathered to discuss the challenges in balancing appropriate pain treatment with efforts to minimize prescription opioid misuse.

Incentives Reduce Stimulant Abuse During Methadone Maintenance

Summarizes a study on the use of incentives to encourage abstinence among methadone maintenance patients in outpatient programs.

Standard Treatments Help Depressed Smokers Quit

Describes a study comparing Staged Care Intervention, a combination treatment for smoking cessation, among smokers in outpatient treatment for depression and a control group.

Depot Naltrexone Appears Safe and Effective for Heroin Addiction

Presents results of a pilot study to investigate the safety and efficacy of a new long-lasting injectable formulation of naltrexone to treat of heroin addiction in an outpatient setting.

Naltrexone-Nicotine Patch Combination Shows Promise

Reports findings from a clinical trial investigating the effectiveness of naltrexone as a supplement to nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation.
Director's Perspective

Genes and Smoking

Reports on the research underway to identify gene variations associated with nicotine addiction and the interaction of genetic makeup, experiences, and surroundings to addiction.

Antipsychotic Drug Prevents Morphine Tolerance in Mice

Summarizes animal studies indicating that an antipsychotic drug, trifluoperazine, prevents morphine tolerance in mice.
Bulletin Board

Journal Highlights Opportunities in Hispanic Drug Abuse Research

Reviews a journal supplement that compiles information on drug abuse research in the Hispanic population.

Cocaine Abusers' Pretreatment Cue Responses Predict Recovery Success

Reports on the work of researchers who used brain images to correlate cocaine-addicted patients' regional brain responses to drug cues with their outcomes in subsequent treatment.

Medical Care During Addiction Treatment Reduces Hospital Use

Reports on an analysis comparing three types of addiction treatment programs: methadone maintenance programs, long-term residential programs, and nonmethadone programs.
Bulletin Board

Videos Help Treat Deaf People

Reviews a training DVD that presents dialectical behavior therapy skills being taught by deaf clinicians to deaf consumers as an approach to improve deaf people's access to behavioral health care.

First-time Patients Opt for Office-Based Buprenorphine

Presents highlights of a study suggesting that compared with methadone, office-based buprenorphine treatment attracts individuals who have less extensive addiction histories.

Brain Mechanism Turns Off Cocaine-Related Memory in Rats

Describes a series of experiments that have added to evidence that a brain enzyme controls key memory processes that link drug experiences, the surroundings in which they take place, and the urge to repeat them.

Study Finds Withdrawal No Easier With Ultrarapid Opiate Detox

Presents findings from a clinical trial comparing ultrarapid, anesthesia-assisted detoxification with detoxification by traditional methods among patients addicted to heroin.

Buprenorphine Plus Behavioral Therapy Is Effective For Adolescents With Opioid Addiction

Reports on a study of adolescents addicted to opioids who responded better to buprenorphine than clonidine in a clinical trial in which all patients also received behavioral therapy.

NIDA Launches Criminal Justice Publication in Chicago

Highlights a publication that outlines 13 research-based principles of successful treatment of drug abusers in the criminal justice system.

Low-Cost Incentives Improve Outcomes in Stimulant Abuse Treatment

Reports on a study investigating the use of incentives in the form of prizes to motivate outpatients to stay in behavioral therapy and remain drug free.

Methylphenidate for Comorbid Cocaine Abuse, ADHD

Describes an inpatient study investigating the effectiveness of sustained-release methylphenidate as a treatment for cocaine-addiction patients with ADHD.
Bulletin Board

NIDA's National Advisory Council Welcomes New Members

Introduces four new members to NIDA’s National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, including Drs. Warren K. Bickel, Ellie E. Schoenbaum, and Marina E. Wolf, and Ms. Janet Wood.
NIDA Notes

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