The development of dependence to morphine also involves specific areas of the brain, separate from the reward pathway. In this case, point to the thalamus and the brainstem (green dots). The parts of the reward pathway involved in heroin or morphine addiction are shown for comparison. Many of the withdrawal symptoms from heroin or morphine are generated when the opiate receptors in the thalamus and brainstem are deprived of morphine.
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APA style citation
NIDA (2007). The Neurobiology of Drug Addiction. Retrieved , from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/teaching-packets/neurobiology-drug-addiction
Explores the consequences of drug abuse on the brain and body and introduces the topics of prevention, and treatment.