En español



Quick Links

Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs


Barbosa PC, Mizumoto S, Bogenschutz MP, Strassman RJ. Health status of ayahuasca users. Drug Test Anal. 2012; 4(7-8):601-609.

Barker SA, McIlhenny EH, Strassman R. A critical review of reportsof endogenous psychedelic N, N-dimethyltryptamines in humans: 1955-2010. Drug Test Anal. 2012; Jul-Aug;4(7-8):617-35.

Bogenschutz MP, Pommy JM. Therapeutic mechanisms of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions: from indirect evidence to testable hypotheses. Drug Test Anal. 2012;4(7-8):543-555.

Bonson KR. Hallucinogenic drugs. In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. United Kingdom: Nature Publishing Group; 2001.

Bouso JC, González D, Fondevila S, et al. Personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance among ritual users of Ayahuasca: a longitudinal study. PLoS One. 2012;7(8).

Cunningham CW, Rothman RB, Prisinzano TE. Neuropharmacology of the naturally occurring kappa-opioid hallucinogen salvinorin A. Pharmacol Rev. 2011;63(2):316-347.

Gilmore HT. Peyote use during pregnancy. S D J Med. 2001;54(1):27-29.

Halpern JH, Sherwood AR, Hudson JI, Yurgelun-Todd D, Pope HG Jr. Psychological and cognitive effects of long-term peyote use among Native Americans. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;58(8):624-631.

Hibell B, Guttormsson U, Ahlström S, et al. The 2011 ESPAD Report: Substance Use Among Students in 36 European Countries. Stockholm, Sweden: The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN); 2012.

Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE. Monitoring the Future national results on drug use: 1975-2014. Overview of key findings on Adolescent Drug Use. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan; 2014.

Lee HM, and Roth BL. Hallucinogen actions on human brain revealed. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(6):1820-1821.

MacLean KA, Johnson MW, Reissig CJ, Prisinzano TE, Griffiths RR. Dose-related effects of salvinorin A in humans: dissociative, hallucinogenic, and memory effects. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013;226(2):381-392.

McKenna, DJ. Clinical investigations of the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca: rationale and regulatory challenges. Pharmacol Ther. 2004;102(2):111-129.

Morgan CJ, Curran HV, Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs. Ketamine use: a review. Addiction. 2012;107(1):27-38.

Morris BJ, Cochran SM, and Pratt JA. PCP: from pharmacology to modelling schizophrenia. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2005;5(1):101-106.

Nichols DE. Hallucinogens. Pharmacol Ther. 2004; 101(2):131-181.

Passie T, Halpern JH, Stichtenoth DO, Emrich HM, Hintzen A. The pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: a review. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2008;14(4):295-314.

Schindler EA, Dave KD, Smolock EM, Aloyo VJ, Harvey JA. Serotonergic and dopaminergic distinctions in the behavioral pharmacology of (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2- aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;101(1): 69-76.

Strassman RJ. Human psychopharmacology of N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Behav Brain Res. 1996;73(1-2):121-124.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2014. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4887. NSDUH Series H-49.

Winstock AR, Kaar S, Borschmann R. Dimethyltryptamine (DMT): prevalence, user characteristics and abuse liability in a large global sample. J Psychopharmacol. 2014;28(1):49-54.

This page was last updated February 2015

Get this Publication

Ordering Publications

Call 1-877-643-2644 or:
NIDA Drug Pubs
Cite this article

NIDA. (2015, February 1). Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/hallucinogens-dissociative-drugs

press ctrl+c to copy

​Research Reports

This series of reports simplifies the science of research findings for the educated lay public, legislators, educational groups, and practitioners. The series reports on research findings of national interest.

Lesson Plan and Activity Finder

Mind Matters