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Media Guide


  1. National Drug Threat Assessment. U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Intelligence Center; 2011. www.justice.gov/archive/ndic/pubs44/44849/44849p.pdf.
  2. Birnbaum HG, White AG, Schiller M, Waldman T, Cleveland JM, Roland CL. Societal costs of prescription opioid abuse, dependence, and misuse in the United States. Pain Med Malden Mass. 2011;12(4):657-667. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2011.01075.x
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Excessive Drinking Is Draining the U.S. Economy.; 2016. https://www.cdc.gov/features/costsofdrinking/. Accessed April 21, 2017.
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. drug overdose deaths continue to rise; increase fueled by synthetic opioids. https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2018/p0329-drug-overdose-deaths.html. Published March 29, 2018. Accessed May 15, 2018.
  5. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (US) Office on Smoking and Health. The Health Consequences of Smoking – 50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); 2014. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK179276/.
  6. Data Brief 294. Drug Overdose Deaths in the United States, 1999–2016. National Center for Health Statistics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db294_table.pdf#page=4.
  7. Hasin DS, Saha TD, Kerridge BT, et al. Prevalence of Marijuana Use Disorders in the United States Between 2001–2002 and 2012–2013. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(12): 1235-1242. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.1858
  8. Winters KC, Lee C-YS. Likelihood of developing an alcohol and cannabis use disorder during youth: Association with recent use and age. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;92 (1-3):239-247. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.08.005
  9. Jones CM. Heroin use and heroin use risk behaviors among nonmedical users of prescription opioid pain relievers—United States, 2002–2004 and 2008–2010.Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;132(1-2):95-100. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.01.007
  10. Muhuri PK, Gfroerer JC, Davies MC. Associations of Nonmedical Pain Reliever Use and Initiation of Heroin Use in the United States. CBHSQ Data Rev. August 2013.
This publication is available for your use and may be reproduced in its entirety without permission from the NIDA. Citation of the source is appreciated, using the following language: Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse; National Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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NIDA. (2018, July 2). Media Guide. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/media-guide

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