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Module 1: Safe Prescribing for Pain (Unaccredited)

Module 1: Completion

Congratulations! You have now completed Module 1: Safe Prescribing for Pain (Unaccredited).

To learn more about the safe management of opioid pain medications, please visit Module 2: Managing Pain Patients Who Abuse Prescription Drugs (Unaccredited).

NIDA offers additional tools and resources for you and your patients, including:

NIDA also provides free drug abuse and addiction curriculum resources for faculty, resident physicians, and medical students through NIDA’s  Centers of Excellence for Physician Information.


  1. Prescription drugs: abuse and addiction. 2011. www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/rrprescription.pdf. Accessed August 31, 2012.
  2. Interagency guidelines on opioid dosing for non-cancer pain. 2010 update. http://www.agencymeddirectors.wa.gov/Files/OpioidGdline.pdf. Accessed August 31, 2012.
  3. Ballantyne JC, Mao J. Opioid therapy for chronic pain. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1943-1953. Abstract
  4. Eisenberg E, McNicol ED, Carr DB. Efficacy and safety of opioid agonists in the treatment of neuropathic pain of nonmalignant origin: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2005;293:3043-3052. Abstract
  5. Martell BA, O'Connor PG, Kerns RD, et al. Systematic review: opioid treatment for chronic back pain: prevalence, efficacy, and association with addiction. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146:116-127. Abstract
  6. Michna E, Ross EL, Hynes WL, et al. Predicting aberrant drug behavior in patients treated for chronic pain: importance of abuse history. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2004;28:250-258. Abstract
  7. Akbik H, Butler SF, Budman SH, Fernandez K, Katz NP, Jamison RN. Validation and clinical application of the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain (SOAPP). J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006;32:287-293. Abstract
  8. Webster LR, Webster RM. Predicting aberrant behaviors in opioid-treated patients: preliminary validation of the Opioid Risk Tool. Pain Med. 2005;696:432-442.
  9. Prescription drug monitoring programs: fact sheet. April 2011. http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ondcp/pdmp.pdf. Accessed August 31, 2012.
  10. Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Volume 1. Summary of National Findings. NSDUH Series H-44, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-4713. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012
  11. Highlights of the 2009 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) findings on drug-related emergency-room visits. 2010. http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k10/dawnsr034edhighlights/edhighlights.htm. Accessed August 31, 2012.
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC grand rounds: prescription drug overdoses: a US epidemic. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61:10-13. Abstract
  13. Fishbain DA, Rosomoff HL, Rosomoff RS. Drug abuse, dependence, and addiction in chronic pain patients. Clin J Pain. 1992;8:77-85. Abstract
  14. Boscarino JA, Rukstalis M, Hoffman SN, et al. Risk factors for drug dependence among outpatients on opioid therapy in a large US healthcare system. Addiction. 2010;105:1776-1782. Abstract
  15. Passik SD, Kirsh KL, Whitcomb L, et al. A new tool to assess and document pain outcomes in chronic pain patients receiving opioid therapy. Clin Ther. 2004;26:552-561. Abstract
  16. Gourlay DL, Heit HA, Almahrezi A. Universal precautions in pain medicine: a rational approach to the treatment of chronic pain. Pain Med. 2005;6:107-112. Abstract
  17. Gourlay DL, Heit HA. Universal precautions revisited: managing the inherited pain patient. Pain Med. 2009;10:S115-S123. Abstract
  18. Informed Consent. http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/legal-topics/patient-physician-relationship-topics/informed-consent.page? Accessed August 31, 2012.
  19. Management of opioid therapy for chronic pain. 2010. http://www.healthquality.va.gov/COT_312_Full-er.pdf. Accessed August 31, 2012.
  20. Butler SF, Budman SH, Fernandez KC, et al. Development and validation of the Current Opioid Misuse Measure. Pain. 2007;130:144-156. Abstract
  21. Herring ME, Shah SK, Shah SK, Gupta AK. Current regulations and modest proposals regarding disposal of unused opioids and other controlled substances. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2008;108:338-343. Abstract
  22. How to dispose of unused medicines (October 2009). http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm101653.htm. Accessed August 31, 2012.

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