Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) reduces opioid misuse among chronic pain patients. MORE shifts patients' attention away from drug cues and toward cues for natural rewards.
In animal studies, α2δ-1 and its interactions with NMDA receptors in the spinal cord triggered the pain sensitivity and analgesic tolerance that occurs with chronic morphine treatment. Blocking the α2δ-1–NMDA interaction reduced opioid-induced hyperalgesia and analgesic tolerance.
The dopamine D3 receptor antagonist VK4-116 reduced oxycodone self-administration in rats, as well as drug-seeking behaviors after oxycodone reinstatement following withdrawal. VK4-116 did not interfere with oxycodone’s pain-relieving effects
Mice genetically engineered to lack mu opioid receptors in the medial habenula were less sensitive to the unpleasant effects of the opioid antagonist naloxone and showed fewer naloxone-induced withdrawal symptoms.