People’s decisions to use e-cigarettes, as well as perceptions about associated risks, are influenced by the e-cigarettes’ nicotine levels and available flavors. The influence of these characteristics on decision-making and perceived risk differs between people who smoke cigarettes and people who do not smoke.
Rats with a disrupted transcription factor 7-like 2 (Tcf7l2) gene in the medial habenula showed markedly greater nicotine intake than control rats. Reduced Tcf7l2 expression in the medial habenula reduced the normally observed increase in blood sugar in response to nicotine.
The number of children (ages 3 to 11 years) in the United States who are exposed to tobacco smoke decreased steadily from 1999 to 2014. However, childhood tobacco smoke exposure differs among sociodemographic groups.
Smokers who switch to cigarettes with very low nicotine content may experience mild and transient increases in some withdrawal symptoms. Cigarettes with reduced nicotine will be easier to quit than the cigarettes marketed at present.