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Treatment

Serotonin Receptor Agonist Lorcaserin Reduces Relapse to Drug Use in Monkeys

The serotonin 2C receptor agonist lorcaserin reduced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in response to heroin or cocaine in a nonhuman primate model of relapse.

Treatment

Antiretroviral Therapy Combined With CRISPR Gene Editing Can Eliminate HIV Infection in Mice

This study found that HIV-1 could be eliminated in mice using a combination of two antiviral technologies—long-acting viral reservoir–targeted antiretroviral therapy and CRISPR/Cas-9 gene editing. HIV was undetectable in 9 out of 23 mice that received the combination treatment. HIV was not eliminated in any of the mice that were given either treatment alone.

Basic Science

Part 2: Immunotherapies—A New Tool To Treat Methamphetamine Addiction?

Researchers move their monoclonal antibody (mAb) into clinical trials to see if it can be an effective treatment for methamphetamine use.

Basic Science

Part 1: Immunotherapies—A New Tool To Treat Methamphetamine Addiction?

Researchers have created a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that is intended to interact with methamphetamine and decrease its ability to enter the brain.

Treatment

AOUD Treatment in Primary Care Settings—Is it Feasible?

Treatment for alcohol and opioid use disorders (AOUD) is feasible in primary care settings, but ongoing funding to support organizational capacity is critical for sustaining such programs.

Basic Science

Novel Dopamine D3 Receptor Antagonist Reduces Opioid Addiction-Like Behaviors in Rats

The dopamine D3 receptor antagonist VK4-116 reduced oxycodone self-administration in rats, as well as drug-seeking behaviors after oxycodone reinstatement following withdrawal. VK4-116 did not interfere with oxycodone’s pain-relieving effects

Basic Science

α2δ-1–NMDA Receptor Interactions Are Responsible for Increases in Pain Sensitivity Caused by Opioids

In animal studies, α2δ-1 and its interactions with NMDA receptors in the spinal cord triggered the pain sensitivity and analgesic tolerance that occurs with chronic morphine treatment. Blocking the α2δ-1–NMDA interaction reduced opioid-induced hyperalgesia and analgesic tolerance.

Treatment

Mindful Awareness in Body-Oriented Therapy Proves Useful in Women Treated for Substance Use Disorder

Mindful Awareness in Body-Oriented Therapy (MABT) improved emotion regulation, reduced craving, and promoted abstinence in women with a history of trauma and emotional problems receiving outpatient treatment for substance use disorder.

Basic Science

Machine Learning Applied to Brain Imaging Data Predicts Response to Cocaine Use Disorder Treatment

This study demonstrated that functional connectivity among a large number of brain regions predicts patients’ chances of achieving abstinence in treatment for cocaine use disorder.

Basic Science

Rats Prefer Social Interaction to Heroin or Methamphetamine

This study showed that rats will forgo heroin and methamphetamine in favor of spending time with another rat. It also highlights the importance of incorporating voluntary choice between drugs and social rewards in drug addiction research.

Treatment

Methadone Maintenance Treatment During Incarceration Has Long-Term Benefits

Prisoners who received methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) during incarceration were more likely than prisoners who did not receive MMT to engage in the treatment after being released.

Treatment

Interim Buprenorphine Alleviates Psychiatric Symptoms in Waitlisted OUD Patients

Interim treatment with buprenorphine significantly improved the psychiatric symptoms of people awaiting comprehensive treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). Buprenorphine treatment, even without concurrent psychosocial counseling, may help patients with no, or delayed, access to comprehensive OUD treatment.

Treatment

A Promising Alternative to Opioid Pain Medications

An experimental compound with a dual action at two opioid receptors may provide powerful pain relief without many of opioids' harmful side effects.

Treatment

Prescription Opioid Misuse Treatment Leverages Mindfulness To Amplify Natural Rewards

Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) reduces opioid misuse among chronic pain patients. MORE shifts patients' attention away from drug cues and toward cues for natural rewards.

Treatment

Switching to Reduced-Nicotine Cigarettes May Aid in Quitting Smoking

Smokers who switch to cigarettes with very low nicotine content may experience mild and transient increases in some withdrawal symptoms. Cigarettes with reduced nicotine will be easier to quit than the cigarettes marketed at present.

Treatment

Outcomes of Computerized CBT Rival Those of Clinician-Delivered CBT

A clinical trial found that patients who self-administered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) using computerized training modules reduced their drug use as much as patients who received clinician-delivered CBT, and they maintained this advantage through a 6-month follow-up.

Treatment

In Animals, Opioid Combination Shows Promise for Safer Pain Relief

In rats, the combination treatment of oxycodone/nalfurafine had lower levels of abuse liability and produced less respiratory depression than oxycodone alone.

Treatment

Novel Compound Alleviates Hard-to-Treat Pain in Mice

A novel compound called GAT211 alleviates inflammatory and neuropathic pain in mice without producing tolerance or signs of abuse liability.

Treatment

Cigarette Smoking Increases the Likelihood of Drug Use Relapse

Research suggests that helping patients quit and remain abstinent from smoking may improve their chances for sustained recovery from use of other drugs.

Narrative of Discovery

Narrative of Discovery: The Quest for a Medication To Treat Methamphetamine Addiction, Part 3

Dr. Linda Dwoskin feels just one small step away from success in her effort to develop the first ever medication to treat methamphetamine addiction.

Treatment

Fear of Distress Signals Risk for Opioid Misuse in Chronic Pain Patients

Among patients with chronic pain, those who reported less ability to tolerate physical or emotional distress were more likely to misuse opioid analgesics.

Narrative of Discovery

Narrative of Discovery: Can Magnets Treat Cocaine Addiction? Part 3

In the final installment of this series, Dr. Diana Martinez navigates the process for receiving NIH funding to test the efficacy of using transcranial magnetic stimulation as treatment for cocaine addiction.

Treatment

Buprenorphine Benefits Waitlisted Seekers of Opioid Treatment

In two pilot clinical trials, buprenorphine helped participants reduce their illicit opioid use and injection drug use while awaiting admission to a methadone or buprenorphine treatment program. Researchers minimized the risks for improper use or diversion of the study medication by giving it to trial participants in a computerized, tamper-proof device that dispenses one dose each day.

Treatment

Nonmedical Treatment for Cocaine Addiction Shows Promise in Pilot Trial

Patients who received transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were more likely to abstain from cocaine than patients who received medications for symptoms associated with abstinence. Researchers concluded that TMS appears to be safe and its efficacy as a treatment for cocaine addiction deserves to be evaluated in a larger clinical trial.

Treatment

Messages Shore Up Support for Making Life-Saving Anti-Overdose Medication Widely Available

Public health messages can increase public approval for making naloxone legally available to friends and relatives of opioid users to administer if an overdose occurs.

Treatment

Quinine as a Tracer for Medication Adherence

Patients who don’t take their medications as prescribed often put themselves at risk for problems including misdiagnoses, complications, and death. A study suggests that adding low doses of quinine to patients’ medications could provide an inexpensive, reliable, and safe method of monitoring whether patients are taking their medications as directed.

Treatment

Slow-Release Amphetamine Medication Benefits Patients With Comorbid Cocaine Addiction and ADHD

Treatment with an extended-release stimulant medication plus cognitive behavioral therapy was associated with reductions in cocaine use and in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in patients with both disorders.

Narrative of Discovery

Narrative of Discovery: Can Magnets Treat Cocaine Addiction? Part 2

During investigations into using transcranial brain stimulation (TMS) to treat cocaine abuse, two projects take diverging paths. One researcher moves to the next stage, while another is forced to cut his trial short. 

Treatment

Dual Regimen Aims To Shorten Medication-Assisted Therapy

Treatment that combines use of Bp/Nx and memantine may enable young adults addicted to opioids establish lasting abstinence after a relatively brief course of medication-assisted therapy, a pilot trial suggests.

Narrative of Discovery

Narrative of Discovery: In Search of a Medication To Treat Methamphetamine Addiction, Part 2

When lobeline turned out not to be the answer, it became a starting point. Dr. Linda Dwoskin and her team set out to transform the molecule into something more effective and with fewer side effects.

Treatment

Testing a Prospective Medication To Help People Avoid Relapse

This NIDA Notes animation depicts a basic experiment that researchers use to test whether a prospective new medication can prevent relapse to drug addiction.

Treatment

ED-Initiated Buprenorphine Outperforms Referral or SBIRT for ED Patients With Opioid Addiction

Emergency department visits present prime opportunities to identify people with opioid addiction and provide them with onsite initiation of treatment with buprenorphine/naloxone.

NIDA Notes

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