The Special Populations Office, Office of the Director (OD), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) hosted the Southern Africa Initiative: Research Progress and Perspectives Meeting in Bethesda, Maryland on April 16–17, 2007. The 2-day meeting convened U.S. principal investigators and their South African collaborators to discuss the impact of NIDA funding on research capacity development in South Africa. Research topics encompassed neuroscience, social and behavioral science, drug abuse prevention/intervention, and HIV. Attendees addressed the barriers encountered, success stories, and provided recommendations to NIDA for future research studies. Dr. Nora Volkow gave a welcoming presentation to the meeting attendees. Other members of NIDA senior staff also made presentations.