Mario A. Zapata
Zapata, Mario A.; Segura, Angela, M. CARISMA, Colombia
Objective: This study aims at two goals: to identify some of the most important risk and protective factors associated with relapse treatment and to develop a predictive model for treatment outcomes. This study comes from the hypothesis that “relapse among drug addicted patients receiving treatment is lower in those patients who get involved in occupational or work activities.” At the same time, it intends to explore and gather evidence that allows us to conclude on the risk and protective factors that predict treatment results in drug-addicted patients.
Method: This is a case-control study. The sample is comprised of 152 cases (75 cases referred to as failure, total or partial relapse, and 77 controls known as success, total or partial abstinence) that had completed treatment at a Colombian mental health and addiction public center. There was bivaried analysis of demographic characteristics, personal, family, and legal history, prior treatments, substance abuse before and after completion of treatment, family relationships, and work-financial situation. The multivaried phase was conducted through a predictive logistic regression model.
Results: Similar outcomes were found on demographic characteristics. The principal risk factors were found: how time is spent (OR: 45.6), drug abuse in best friend (OR: 24.8), drug abuse in sexual partner (OR: 14.9), affective indifference (OR: 17.8), affective overprotection (OR: 13.5), blocked family communication (OR: 17.2), unemployed or without productive occupation (OR:3.6), and not contributing to support family (OR: 17.3). Protective factors were: personal motivation to treatment (OR: 0.476), support group participation (OR: 0.125), democratic authority model in family (OR: 0.019), and direct communication and acceptance in family (OR: 0.042 and 0.03). The predictive model showed that outcomes on treatment predictive variables are: drug abuse by best friend, democratic authority within the family as risk factors and direct communication and productive occupation as protective factors.
Conclusion: In conclusion: (1) Authority, communication, and affective relationships within the family were rated as most important in the study results; (2) a risk family model for relapse is expressed in the results comprised by: family surroundings with no authority or the presence of other patterns of flexible and permissive authority, families with closed communication space, and emotional links where overprotection or indifference in others is predominant; (3) a protective family model, which may support the interventions plan aiming to lower relapse is made up of a scheme of democratic family authority, direct communication among its members, and an affectionate relationship where the feelings of acceptance are predominant; and (4) it may be concluded that not having a job or productive activity is a relapse risk that confirms the hypothesis on which this study was based.