Women and men may face unique issues when it comes to substance use, as a result of both sex and gender. Sex differences result from biology, or being genetically female or male, while gender differences are based on culturally defined roles for men and women, as well as those who feel uncomfortable identifying with either category; such roles influence how people perceive themselves and how they interact with others. Sex and gender can also interact with each other to create even more complex differences between men and women. Read the DrugFacts
- Easy-to-Read Drug Facts: Drug Use Hurts Unborn Babies - Has pictures and videos to help readers understand the text. The website also can read each page out loud.
- Scientific Conference: Opioid and Nicotine Use, Dependence, and Recovery: Influences of Sex and Gender (U.S. Food and Drug Administration)
- Raising Awareness About Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism)
- Substance Use in Women and Men - Provides an infographic.
- Tobacco Exposure Linked to Infertility, Earlier Menopause (Medscape)
- Consideration of Sex Differences in Medicine to Improve Health Care and Patient Outcomes (Journal of the American Medical Association, October 2016)
- HHS Office on Women's Health
- Smokefree Women (National Cancer Institute)
- NIH Office of Research on Women's Health
- FDA Office of Women's Health
- Treatment Improvement Protocol: Medications for Opioid Use Disorders (SAMHSA)
- Clinical Guidance for Treating Pregnant and Parenting Women With Opioid Use Disorder and Their Infants (SAMHSA)
- LactMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
- Treating for Two (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- NICHD-Supported Opioids Research
- Marijuana Use During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: Implications for Neonatal and Childhood Outcomes (Pediatrics)
- MEDLINEplus Health Information on Drug Abuse (National Library of Medicine, NIH)
- Healthfinder.gov (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)
Clinical trials are research studies in human volunteers conducted to answer specific health questions. Learn about the NIH-sponsored clinical trials available to you.