The study uses a Hybrid Type 3 Effectiveness-Implementation framework and a modified stepped wedge design. The study will be conducted at four EDs with a high prevalence of patients with untreated opioid use disorder (OUD). The four sites will receive the same sequence of evaluations and interventions: the baseline evaluation period after the standard dissemination practice, the IF phase, and continuation of facilitation into the IF evaluation period. The timing of initiation of the study activities at each site will be randomly offset by ~ 3 month increments to accommodate logistical constraints of simultaneous implementation at all sites. The study populations will include (1) ED providers and staff involved in the treatment of patients with OUD; (2) Community opioid treatment provider and program staff involved in providing care for patients with OUD referred from the ED; and (3) ED patients with moderate to severe OUD.
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