En español
NIDA

Menu

The Neurobiology of Ecstasy (MDMA)

2: Long-term effects of ecstasy: neurotoxic?

List of effects of ecstasy

When people use Ecstasy repeatedly or long term, there may be changes in their brain chemistry that suggest that the serotonin neurons are damaged. One major clue is that serotonin itself and its metabolites (remind students that serotonin that is taken back up into the terminal is metabolized by enzymes) are diminished in the brains of animals treated with ecstasy. Moreover, the best evidence that we have so far is that even seven years after a brief exposure to ecstasy, serotonin levels in monkey brains have not fully returned to normal. This is described in the next image.

This page was last updated January 2007

Teaching Packets

Explores the consequences of drug abuse on the brain and body and introduces the topics of prevention, and treatment.

Featured Publication

Featured Publication

Drugs, Brains, and Behavior - The Science of Addiction

As a result of scientific research, we know that addiction is a disease that affects both brain and behavior.

Ordering Publications

Call 1-877-643-2644 or:

NIDA Drug Pubs