9: Brain regions mediating the development of morphine dependence
The development of dependence to morphine also involves specific areas of the brain, separate from the reward pathway. In this case, point to the thalamus and the brainstem (green dots). The parts of the reward pathway involved in heroin or morphine addiction are shown for comparison. Many of the withdrawal symptoms from heroin or morphine are generated when the opiate receptors in the thalamus and brainstem are deprived of morphine.
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National Institute on Drug Abuse (2007). 9: Brain regions mediating the development of morphine dependence. In The Neurobiology of Drug Addiction. Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/teaching-packets/neurobiology-drug-addiction/section-iii-action-heroin-morphine/9-brain-regions-mediating-develo
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