8: Opiates binding to opiate receptors in the nucleus accumbens: increased dopamine release
Show how opiates activiate the reward system using the nucleus accumbens as an example. Explain that the action is a little more complicated than cocaine's because more than two neurons are involved. Point out that three neurons participate in opiate action: the dopamine terminal, another terminal (on the right) containing a different neurotransmitter (probably GABA for those that would like to know), and the post-synaptic cell containing dopamine receptors. Show that opiates bind to opiate receptors (green) on the neighboring terminal and this sends a signal to the dopamine terminal to release more dopamine. [In case an inquisitive student asks how, one theory is that opiate receptor activation decreases GABA release, which normally inhibits dopamine release, so dopamine release is increased.]
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AP style citation
National Institute on Drug Abuse (2007). 8: Opiates binding to opiate receptors in the nucleus accumbens: increased dopamine release. In The Brain & the Actions of Cocaine, Opiates, and Marijuana. Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/teaching-packets/brain-actions-cocaine-opiates-marijuana/section-iii-introduction-to-drugs-abuse-cocaine-opiat-7
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