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MDMA (Ecstasy) Abuse

References

  1. Morgan, M.J. Ecstasy (MDMA): a review of its possible persistent psychological effects. Psychopharmacology 152:230-248 (2000).
  2. Parrott AC. Human psychopharmacology of Ecstasy (MDMA): a review of 15 years of empirical research. Human Psychopharmacol Clin Exp 16: 557-577 (2001).
  3. Lyles, J.; and Cadet, J.L. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) neurotoxicity: cellular and molecular mechanisms. Brain Research Reviews 42:155-168 (2003).
  4. Dafters, R.I.; and Lynch, E. Persistent loss of thermoregulation in the rate induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "Ecstasy") but not by fenfluramine. Psychopharmacology 138:207-212 (1998).
  5. Liechti, M.E.; and Vollenweider, F.X. Which neuroreceptors mediate the subjective effects of MDMA in humans? A summary of mechanistic studies. Human Psychopharmacology 16:589-598 (2001).
  6. Lester, S.J.; Baggott, M.; Welm, S.; Schiller, N.B.; Jones, R.T.; Foster, E.; and Mendelson, J. Cardiovascular effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 133:969-973 (2000).
  7. Sherlock, K.; Wolff, K.; Hay, A.W.; and Conner, M. Analysis of illicit ecstasy tablets. Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine 16:194-197 (1999).
  8. Baggott M, Heifets B, Jones RT, Mendelson J, Sferios E, and Zehnder J. Chemical analysis of ecstasy pills. Journal of the American Medical Association 284: 2190 (2000).
  9. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies. Results from the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (NSDUH Series H-28). DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 05-4062. SAMHSA, (2005).
  10. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies. Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2003: Interim National Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits. DAWN Series D-26, DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 04-3972. Rockville, MD (2004).
  11. Thompson, M.R., Li, K.M., Clemens, K.J., Gurtman, C.G., Hunt, G.E., Cornish, J.L., and McGregor, I.S. Chronic fluoxetine treatment partly attenuates the long-term anxiety and depressive symptoms induced by MDMA ('Ecstasy') in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 29(40):694-704, 2004.
  12. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2005. (NIH Publication No. 06-5882). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2006)
  13. Community Epidemiology Work Group. Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse: Advance Report. Bethesda, MD. December 2003.
  14. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use 2004.
  15. Lamers CTJ, Ramaekers JF, Muntjewerff ND, Sikkema KL, Samyn N, Read NL, Brookhuis KA, and Riedel SJ. Dissociable effects of a single dose of ecstasy (MDMA) on psychomotor skills and attentional performance. Journal of Psychopharmacology 17: 378-387.
  16. Parrott, A.C.; and Lasky, J. Ecstasy (MDMA) effect upon mood and cognition: before, during and after a Saturday night dance. Psychopharmacology 139:261-268 (1998).
  17. Curran, H.V.; and Travill, R.A. Mood and cognitive effects of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy'): week-end 'high' followed by mid-week low. Addiction 92:821-831 (1997).
  18. Parrott AC, Sisk E, and Turner JJD. Psychobiological problems in heavy "ecstasy" (MDMA) polydrug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 60: 105-110 (2000).
  19. Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Dersch CM, Romero DV, Rice KC, Carroll FI and Partilla JS. Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin. Synapse 39: 32-41 (2001).
  20. Kish SJ. How strong is the evidence that brain serotonin neurons are damaged in human users of ecstasy? Pharmacology Biochemistry Behavior 71: 845-855 (2002).
  21. Morgan, M.J. Memory deficits associated with recreational use of "ecstasy" (MDMA). Psychopharmacology 141:30-36 (1999).
  22. Soar K, Turner JJD, and Parrott AC. Psychiatric disorders in Ecstasy (MDMA) users: a literature review focusing on personal predisposition and drug history. Human Psychopharmacology 16: 641-645.
  23. Verkes, R.J.; Gijsman, H.J.; Pieters, M.S.M.; Schoemaker, R.C.; de Visser, S.; Kuijpers, M.; Pennings, E.J.M.; de Bruin, D.; Van de Wijngaart, G.; Van Gerven, J.M.A.; and Cohen, A.F. Cognitive performance and serotonergic function in users of ecstasy. Psychopharmacology 153:196-202 (2001).
  24. Wareing, M.; Fisk, J.E.; and Murphy, P.N. Working memory deficits in current and previous users of MDMA ('ecstasy'). British Journal of Psychology 91:181-188 (2000).
  25. Reneman, L.; Booij, J.; Schmand, B.; van den Brink, W.; and Gunning, B. Memory disturbances in "Ecstasy" users are correlated with an altered brain serotonin neurotransmission. Psychopharmacology 148:322-324 (2000).
  26. Bolla, K.I.; McCann, U.D.; and Ricaurte, G.A. Memory impairment in abstinent MDMA ("Ecstasy") users. Neurology 51:1532-1537 (1998).
  27. McCann, U.D.; Eligulashvili, V.; and Ricaurte, G.A. (±)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy')- induced serotonin neurotoxicity: clinical studies. Neuropsychobiology 42:11-16 (2000).
  28. Obrocki, J.; Buchert, R.; Väterlein, O.; Thomasius, R.; Beyer, W.; and Schiemann, T. Ecstasy - long-term effects on the human central nervous system revealed by positron emission tomography. British Journal of Psychiatry 175:186-188 (1999).
  29. Ricaurte GA, McCann UD, Szabo Z, and Scheffel U. Toxicodynamics and long-term toxicity of the recreational drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy"). Toxicology Letters 112-113:143-146 (2000).
  30. Kish, S.J.; Furukawa, Y.; Ang, L.; Vorce, S.P.; and Kalasinsky, K.S. Striatal serotonin is depleted in brain of a human MDMA (Ecstasy) user. Neurology 55:294-296 (2000).
  31. Lieb R, Schuetz CG, Pfister H, von Sydow K, and Wittchen H. Mental disorders in ecstasy users: a prospective-longitudinal investigation. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 68: 195-207 (2002).
  32. Broening, H.W.; Morford, L.L.; Inman-Wood, S.L.; Fukumura, M.; and Vorhees, C.V. 3,4- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy)-induced learning and memory impairments depend on the age of exposure during early development. The Journal of Neuroscience 21:3228-3235 (2001).
  33. Colado, M.I.; O'Shea, E.; Granados, R.; Misra, A.; Murray, T.K.; and Green, A.R.; A study of the neurotoxic effect of MDMA ('ecstasy') on 5-HT neurons in the brains of mothers and neonates following administration of the drug during pregnancy. British Journal of Pharmacology 121:827-833 (1997).
  34. Koprich, J.B.; Chen, E.-Y.; Kanaan, N.M.; Campbell, N.G.; Kordower, J.H.; and Lipton, J.W. Prenatal 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) alters exploratory behavior, reduces monoamine metabolism, and increases forebrain tyrosine hydroxylase fiber density of juvenile rats. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 25: 509-517 (2003).
  35. Degenhardt, L.; Bruno, R.; and Topp, L. Is ecstasy a drug of dependence? Drug and Alcohol Dependence 107: 1-10 (2010).
  36. Schenk, S.; Gittings, D.; Johnstone, M.; and Daniela, E. Development, maintenance and temporal pattern of self-administration maintained by ecstasy (MDMA) in rats. Psychopharmacology 169:21-27 (2003).(23) Wareing, M.; Fisk, J.E.; and Murphy, P.N. Working memory deficits in current and previous users of MDMA ('ecstasy'). British Journal of Psychology 91:181-188 (2000).

This page was last updated March 2006