NIH Pub Number:
Published: April 2009
Author: National Institute on Drug Abuse
This issue features three articles on drug abuse and criminal justice. In the first, Dr. Michael Prendergast describes how correctional drug treatment can improve outcomes for offenders upon release and stresses the importance of community aftercare for reducing relapse and recidivism. In the second, Dr. Carl Leukefeld and colleagues describe two projects for drug-abusing offenders re-entering the community after incarceration: the development of a set of re-entry guidelines through a Delphi process and an intervention to reduce post-release HIV risk in women offenders. Concluding the criminal justice feature, Ms. Melody Heaps and her colleagues at Treatment Alternatives for Safe Communities (TASC) of Illinois posit a recovery-oriented system of care for drug-abusing criminal offenders that exists outside of the justice system, comanages offender treatment, and provides other services to promote successful outcomes as well as public health and safety. Finally, addressing some of the medical complications of illicit drug use, Drs. Kristy Hendricks and Sherwood Gorbach describe the nutrition issues of chronic drug users living with HIV.
From the Director
A Note From NIDA's Director
Nora D. Volkow, M.D.
From the Editor
Treating Criminal Offenders: Where Things Stand
Interventions to Promote Successful Re-Entry Among Drug-Abusing Parolees
Michael L. Prendergast, Ph.D.
Although evaluations have found prison treatment programs to be generally effective, most studies report that paroled graduates of these programs are much more likely to remain drug-free if they receive continuing treatment in the community. This article reviews research findings on principles of effective correctional treatment and the interventions that have been shown to be effective with drug-abusing parolees or that have been tested with general drug-abusing populations and show promise for use with parolees. The article concludes with a discussion of several issues that clinicians need to consider in adopting and implementing these interventions.
RESPONSE: PATHWAYS TO RECOVERY AND REINTEGRATION
Deanne Benos, B.A.; Flo Stein, M.A.; and Harry K.Wexler, Ph.D.
Nutrition Issues in Chronic Drug Users Living With HIV Infection
Kristy Hendricks, Sc.D., R.D., and Sherwood Gorbach, M.D.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and chronic drug abuse both compromise nutritional status. For individuals with both disorders, the combined effects on wasting, the nutritional consequence that is most closely linked to mortality, appear to be synergistic. Substance abuse clinicians can improve and extend patients' lives by recommending healthy diets; observing and assessing for food insecurity, nutritional deficits, signs of weight loss and wasting, body composition changes, and metabolic abnormalities; and providing referrals to food programs and nutritionists. More studies are needed on the nutritional consequences of using specific illicit drugs, the impact on health of specific micronutrient and metabolic deficiencies seen in people with HIV, and the causes and clinical implications of body fat changes associated with HIV.
Drug Abuse Treatment Beyond Prison Walls
Carl Leukefeld, D.S.W., Carrie B. Oser, Ph.D., Jennifer Havens, Ph.D., Michele Staton Tindall, Ph.D., Jennifer Mooney, M.S., Jamieson Duvall, Ph.D., and Hannah Knudsen, Ph.D.
The period surrounding release from prison is a critical time for parolees, bearing the potential for a drug-free and crime-free life in the community but also high risks for recidivism and relapse to drugs. The authors describe two projects. The first illustrates the use of a formal Delphi process to elicit and combine the expertise of treatment providers, researchers, corrections personnel, and other stakeholders in a set of statewide guidelines for facilitating re-entry. The second project is a six-session intervention to enable women to protect themselves against acquiring or transmitting HIV in their intimate relationships.
Science and Practice in Action
Recovery-Oriented Care for Drug-Abusing Offenders
Melody M. Heaps, M.A., Arthur J. Lurigio, Ph.D., Pamela Rodriguez, M.A., Thomas Lyons, Ph.D., and Laura Brookes
As described by the authors, a recovery-oriented system of care for drug-abusing criminal offenders is one that provides for continuity of treatment, using evidence-based interventions at every stage as clients progress through the justice system. Treatment Alternatives for Safe Communities of Illinois has partnered with criminal justice and treatment programs to establish a basic recovery-oriented system, with programs that span pre-adjudication, probation or incarceration, and parole.
RESPONSE: A SENSIBLE DIVISION OF LABOR
Douglas McDonald, Ph.D.; Sally J. Stevens, Ph.D.; and Shiela Strauss, Ph.D.
Authors and Respondents
- This Issue's Authors and Respondents
- Cocaine May Increase Risk for Cognitive Problems in HIV
Continuing Education Quiz for Counselors
- Substance abuse counselors can earn two nationally certified continuing education (CE) hours by reading the indicated articles and completing the multiple-choice quiz. This is an open-book exam. Complete the quiz by circling one or more of the multiple-choice answers. Be sure to answer all questions; unanswered questions will be scored as incorrect. You must score at least 70 percent to earn CE hours. Please note that we must receive your quiz by July 15, 2009.
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Following the publication of Volume 6, Number 1, NIDA will no longer be the publisher of Addiction Science & Clinical Practice. The journal will subsequently be published by Biomed Central and can be found at ascpjournal.org.
As a result of scientific research, we know that addiction is a disease that affects both brain and behavior.