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NIDA Notes keeps you up to date on research advances in the causes, consequences, prevention, and treatment of drug abuse and addiction and HIV/AIDS.

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Vouchers Improve Mothers’ Smoking Abstinence and Newborns’ Weight (April 2012)

Pregnant women who received financial incentives to refrain from smoking during late pregnancy were more successful at remaining abstinent and less likely to have babies with low birth weight, according to data from three trials.

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Desire to Smoke Subsides, But Cigarette Cues Retain Power (April 2012)

During early abstinence, smokers’ cravings triggered by cigarette cues intensified over time, providing evidence that people can experience a phenomenon previously observed in experiments with animals

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Well-Known Mechanism Underlies Benzodiazepines' Addictive Properties (April 2012)

New research establishes that benzodiazepines cause addiction in a way similar to that of opioids, cannabinoids, and the club drug GHB. The discovery opens the door to designing new benzodiazepines that counteract anxiety but are not addictive.

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Tobacco Smokers Have High Probability of Transition to Dependence (April 2012)

First-time smokers have a much higher chance of eventually becoming dependent than first-time users alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine.

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High Rates of Job Leaving Among Addiction Counselors (April 2012)

Substance abuse counselors and clinical supervisors disclosed high job turnover rates in a survey of 27 treatment organizations.

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Physical Activity Reduces Return to Cocaine Seeking in Animal Tests (April 2012)

Two independent animal studies suggest that aerobic exercise might help cocaine abusers establish and maintain abstinence.

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Research Focuses on Groups With High Smoking Rates (April 2012)

Dr. Volkow discusses NIDA’s efforts to develop effective antismoking treatments for populations with persistently high rates of smoking, such as people with psychiatric disorders, high school dropouts, and Native Americans.

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Women and Sex/Gender Differences Research Program (April 2012)

NIDA’s Women and Sex/Gender Differences Research Program focuses on gender-specific addiction risk factors and treatment needs.

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Antiretroviral Treatment Reduces Spread of HIV Among Injection Drug Users (April 2012)

Expanded use of antiretroviral therapy in British Columbia reduced the spread of HIV among injection drug users and others in the province.

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Home Visits by Nurses to Low-Income First-Time Mothers Yield Enduring Benefits (April 2012)

A program involving home visits by nurses to low-income first-time mothers, starting during pregnancy and extending into the second year of their children’s lives, has a positive and long-lasting impact on families. Children who participated in the program were less likely than others to report having used alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana at age 12.

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