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NIDA Notes keeps you up to date on research advances in the causes, consequences, prevention, and treatment of drug abuse and addiction and HIV/AIDS.

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Dr. David Jentsch Receives the 2011 Waletzky Memorial Award (July 2012)

Dr. J. David Jentsch is the recipient of the 2011 Jacob P. Waletzky Memorial Award for Innovative Research in Drug Addiction and Alcoholism. Dr. Jentsch and colleagues at the University of California, Los Angeles, are studying genetic and neurochemical factors that influence individual differences in inhibitory control.

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Investigators Map Functional Networks in the Rat Brain (June 2012)

Researchers have mapped the fundamental functional organization of the rat brain and shown that it resembles that of the human brain.

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Elevated Rates of Drug Abuse Continue for Second Year (June 2012)

Illicit drug use in the United States in 2010 was at its highest level since 2002, according to the most recent report from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. A rise in marijuana use drove the increase. A favorable trend of falling cocaine use continued.

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Women and Sex/Gender Differences Research Program (April 2012)

NIDA’s Women and Sex/Gender Differences Research Program focuses on gender-specific addiction risk factors and treatment needs.

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Antiretroviral Treatment Reduces Spread of HIV Among Injection Drug Users (April 2012)

Expanded use of antiretroviral therapy in British Columbia reduced the spread of HIV among injection drug users and others in the province.

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Home Visits by Nurses to Low-Income First-Time Mothers Yield Enduring Benefits (April 2012)

A program involving home visits by nurses to low-income first-time mothers, starting during pregnancy and extending into the second year of their children’s lives, has a positive and long-lasting impact on families. Children who participated in the program were less likely than others to report having used alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana at age 12.

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Alleviation of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder May Improve Addiction Treatment (April 2012)

Women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who abused drugs responded better to substance abuse treatment after their PTSD symptoms improved, according to a recent study, which also found that reductions in substance abuse did not ease PTSD severity

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Cognitive Strategy Reduces Craving by Altering Brain Activity (April 2012)

While viewing images of cigarettes, smokers reported milder cravings when they shifted their focus from the pleasures of smoking to its harmful effects. Brain imaging showed a correlation between the reductions in craving and altered activity levels in regions associated with emotional regulation and reward.

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Vouchers Improve Mothers’ Smoking Abstinence and Newborns’ Weight (April 2012)

Pregnant women who received financial incentives to refrain from smoking during late pregnancy were more successful at remaining abstinent and less likely to have babies with low birth weight, according to data from three trials.

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Desire to Smoke Subsides, But Cigarette Cues Retain Power (April 2012)

During early abstinence, smokers’ cravings triggered by cigarette cues intensified over time, providing evidence that people can experience a phenomenon previously observed in experiments with animals

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