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Your search for Cocaine returned 72 results. Search again.

Basic Science

Dr. Antonello Bonci Q & A: Lighting Up the Brain To Shut Down Cocaine Seeking

The Scientific Director of NIDA’s Intramural Research Program talks about switching off animals’ compulsive cocaine seeking by optogenetically activating the prefrontal cortex, and the implications of this work for people. In an accompanying podcast, Dr. Bonci walks viewers through experiments that showed that prefrontal cortex activity levels may constitute a simple switch controlling whether or not animals compulsively seek cocaine.

Basic Science

Gene Variants Reduce Opioid Risks

Two recent studies suggest that genotyping may enable clinicians to base therapies on individual patients’ potential responsiveness to opioid drugs’ therapeutic effects and vulnerability to their harmful effects.

Basic Science

New Insight Into How Cues Cause Relapse to Cocaine

A brain response occurs in the nucleus accumbens when rats encounter a cue that they associate with previous cocaine self-administration, but not a cue associated with a pleasurable non-drug experience. Moreover, the response correlates in time and intensity with the animals’ cue-induced relapse to cocaine-seeking.

Basic Science

Marijuana Use May Promote Nicotine Consumption

Exposing rats to THC increases the likelihood that the animals will later self-administer nicotine. THC-exposed rats are also willing to work harder to obtain nicotine. When extrapolated to people, the findings suggest that THC’s pharmacological impact on the brain may make a person who uses marijuana more vulnerable to developing nicotine addiction, an underappreciated health consequence of marijuana use.

Epidemiology

In Nationwide Survey, More Students Use Marijuana, Fewer Use Other Drugs

Almost one-third (32 percent) of the roughly 42,000 Monitoring the Future survey respondents reported having used marijuana during their lifetime. However, abuse of many other drugs—methamphetamine, heroin, cocaine, and some prescription medications—declined.

Prevention

Intervention Strengthens American Indian Teen Mothers’ Parenting

Teen mothers on three American Indian reservations improved on several measures of parenting after participating in Family Spirit, a home-visiting intervention developed with NIDA support. At 12 months postpartum, the women’s children exhibited reduced rates of emotional difficulties predicting later drug abuse and other behavioral problems. Infants at highest risk—those whose mothers had histories of drug abuse—benefited the most.

Basic Science

Prefrontal Cortex Stimulation Stops Compulsive Drug Seeking in Rats

Researchers have shut down laboratory rats’ compulsive cocaine seeking by stimulating an area of the animals’ prefrontal cortex. The finding raises the possibility that stimulating neurons in this brain area may weaken or break cocaine’s grip on the behavior of people who are addicted to the drug.

NIDA @ Work

Dr. Marilyn Huestis Q & A: Matching Drug Effects to Drug Concentrations

Dr. Marilyn Huestis of NIDA’s Intramural Research Program talks about conducting research on drug effects with human subjects, developing tests to help law enforcement identify drugged drivers, and an assay to help identify children whose prenatal exposure to anti-HIV drugs may put them at risk for adverse developmental outcomes.

Basic Science

Male Rats’ Cocaine Exposure Affects Their Offspring’s Drug Responses

In a surprising finding, male rats who used cocaine sired male offspring who later exhibited blunted responses to the drug. Researchers determined the cause was an epigenetic alteration.

Basic Science

Study Pinpoints Cognitive Deficits Due to Cocaine, Finds Potential for Recovery

New research demonstrated that, in rhesus monkeys, ongoing cocaine exposure weakens two brain functions that people require for successful behavioral change: cognitive flexibility and memory. But the study determined that these changes may not be permanent.

Prevention

After Release, Jail Inmates’ Substance Use Patterns Relate to Their Choice of Friends

When the goal is to avoid using alcohol and illicit substances after being released from jail, it’s who one’s friends are that counts most. Self-control is important because it helps a person have the right kind of friends.

Epidemiology

Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol Use Declines as Marijuana Use Rises

Fewer teens are using cigarettes, alcohol, and most illicit drugs, according to NIDA’s latest Monitoring the Future study. Troubling  trends persist in marijuana use, however, and nonmedical prescription drug use remains a concern.

Basic Science

Nicotine Makes Mouse Brain More Responsive to Cocaine

Nicotine sensitizes the mouse brain to the addictive effects of cocaine, according to recent NIDA-supported research. The results accord with the hypothesis that a person’s initial use of an addictive substance physiologically sensitizes his or her brain to the rewarding and addictive effects of other substances. If the findings carry over to people, then preventing youths from smoking might reduce their vulnerability to cocaine abuse and addiction, and cocaine-dependent individuals might ease their path to recovery by quitting smoking.

Treatment

Animation: Building an Anti-Drug Vaccine

The immune system has an extraordinary ability to recognize compounds foreign to the body and eliminate them. NIDA-sponsored scientists are working to harness this ability to create vaccines that will protect individuals against the psychogenic and addictive effects of abused drugs. This animation shows one of the most promising strategies, which has already yielded partial success in producing effective vaccines against nicotine, cocaine, and other drugs.

Basic Science

Stress Receptor Mediates Lifelong Consequences of Early Trauma

NIDA-supported research suggests that glucocorticoid receptor levels during early brain development affect the hard wiring of neural circuits that shape an individual’s basic emotional makeup. In mice, overexpression of the glucocorticoid gene in the first weeks after birth increased anxiety and response to cocaine in adulthood. These findings may help researchers understand the genetic background and the developmental trajectory of addiction.

Treatment

Animal Research Advances Effort to Develop Vaccines Against Cocaine, Heroin Abuse

New vaccines that aim to promote recovery from cocaine and heroin abuse showed promise in animal testing. Both vaccines induced rats’ immune system to produce high titers of antibodies that inhibit the target drug from reaching the brain. The rats’ behaviors when given access to the target drug indicated that the vaccines reduced the reinforcing effects that, in recovering people, can cause lapses to turn into relapses.

Basic Science

Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Increases Monkeys' Impulsivity Into Adulthood

Prenatal drug exposure can have behavioral effects that last well into adulthood, according to two studies of adult monkeys prenatally exposed to cocaine. In the first study, drug-exposed monkeys exhibited less flexibility than controls in adjusting to changing circumstances; in the second study, drug-exposed males exhibited a greater preference than controls for having rewards right away, a sign of impulsivity.

Bulletin Board

Dr. David Jentsch Receives the 2011 Waletzky Memorial Award

Dr. J. David Jentsch is the recipient of the 2011 Jacob P. Waletzky Memorial Award for Innovative Research in Drug Addiction and Alcoholism. Dr. Jentsch and colleagues at the University of California, Los Angeles, are studying genetic and neurochemical factors that influence individual differences in inhibitory control.
Epidemiology

Elevated Rates of Drug Abuse Continue for Second Year

Illicit drug use in the United States in 2010 was at its highest level since 2002, according to the most recent report from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. A rise in marijuana use drove the increase. A favorable trend of falling cocaine use continued.

Epidemiology

Tobacco Smokers Have High Probability of Transition to Dependence

First-time smokers have a much higher chance of eventually becoming dependent than first-time users alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine.
Basic Science

Physical Activity Reduces Return to Cocaine Seeking in Animal Tests

Two independent animal studies suggest that aerobic exercise might help cocaine abusers establish and maintain abstinence.

Prevention

Program Helps Troubled Boys Reduce Substance Abuse

Chronically delinquent boys in Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care reduced their substance abuse more than boys assigned to Community Group Care.

Basic Science

Disruption of Neuron Production in Adult Rats Increases Cocaine Taking

Drug abuse may diminish production of new neurons in the brain’s hippocampus and thereby increase vulnerability to drug addiction.
Basic Science

New Class of Regulators for Addiction Genes

New studies show that microRNAs, snippets of RNA implicated in a wide variety of biological processes, are involved in promoting and inhibiting cocaine addiction. The findings could pave a new path for the development of anti-addiction therapies.
Prevention

Drugs Contribute to High Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Juvenile Offenders

Describe a study of newly arrested youths where researchers found correlations between the youths' prevalence of these sexually transmitted diseases and their cocaine and marijuana use.

Basic Science

Neuropeptide Promotes Behaviors Tied to Addiction and Overeating

Reports on several studies implicating a certain neuropeptide (a signaling molecule) in fostering addition and overeating and discusses implications for addiction treatment.

Epidemiology

High Rates of Illegal Drug Use Among Alcohol-Dependent Adults

Highlights data on the prevalence of rates of illegal drug use and nonmedical use of prescription drugs among adults dependant on alcohol, as compared with the general population.
Bulletin Board

Dr. Paul Kenny Receives the 2010 Waletzky Memorial Award

Announces the recipient of a 2010 award for innovation in research on drug addiction and alcoholism and describes his work on increasing our understanding of the molecular foundation of addiction.
Treatment

Cocaine Vaccine Helps Some Reduce Drug Abuse

Reports on the results of a clinical trial that tested the effectiveness of a cocaine vaccine designed as a therapy for cocaine abuse and plans underway for a new study of 300 patients to confirm these results.

Treatment

Modafinil Normalizes Sleep During Early Cocaine Abstinence

Describes a study investigating the effectiveness of modafinil in enhancing sleep among cocaine abusers who are currently abstinent.
Treatment

Deep Brain Stimulation Reduces Rats' Cocaine Seeking

Describes results from an animal study involving deep brain stimulation that holds promise as a therapy for severe cocaine addiction.
Epidemiology

Drug Abuse at Highest Level in Nearly a Decade

Reports on 2009 data indicating a rise in drug abuse in the United States and the factors that may have contributed to this increase.

Basic Science

Brain Opioid Receptor Levels Predict Time to Cocaine Relapse

Describes study findings revealing that cocaine abusers who maintain high levels of a certain receptor in their brain during early abstinence relapse sooner than abusers whose levels drop.
Basic Science

Brain Adaptation May Dampen Effects of Cocaine

Reports evidence that a cocaine-induced change in the structure of brain cells represents an adaptive response that may limit the drug’s impact.
Basic Science

Crack Cocaine Promotes Progression of HIV Infection to AIDS

Reports on two studies showing a high prevalence of HIV infection and more rapid progression to disability and death among drug abusers.
Treatment

Medications That Normalize Brain Glutamate Reduce Drug-Seeking in Rats

Reports on two studies that demonstrate the promise of treating addiction with medications that alleviate drug-induced alterations in signaling by the neurotransmitter glutamate.
Treatment

Stroop Test Identifies Patients at Risk for Treatment Dropout

Reports on a study of cocaine abusers revealing that the Stroop test may predict which cocaine abusers are likely to drop out of therapy.
Basic Science

Peer Interaction Enhances Adolescent Rats' Drug Reward

Describes an animal study reporting that peer interaction enhances adolescent rats’ drug reward and discusses the impact of these findings to future research on drug reward in social context.
Basic Science

Rare Glutamate Receptor Proliferates After Cocaine Withdrawal

Reports findings that a rare neuroreceptor may be linked to the intensive cravings cocaine abusers experience during their first weeks of abstinence.

Treatment

Recovery May Be Harder for Adolescents, Animal Study Suggests

Reports animal study findings that suggest adolescents' heightened sensitivity to drug reward puts them at enhanced risk of addiction and may also increase their challenges in recovery.

Treatment

Test Substance Attenuates Signs of Cocaine Withdrawal in Rats

Reports on several drugs that may ward off depression and anxiety, common withdrawal symptoms from cocaine, based on an animal study.

Basic Science

Extended Cocaine Exposure Impairs Cognitive Function in Rats

Reports an animal study presenting evidence that cocaine causes cognitive deficits that can persist well into abstinence.

Treatment

Methadone Therapy in Prison Benefits Men a Year Out

Describes clinical trial results providing evidence that methadone maintenance to men in prison can pay off in better retention in community treatment and reduced drug abuse following their release.

Epidemiology

United States Ranks First in Lifetime Use of Three Drugs

Highlights the disproportionately high rate of Americans who have used cocaine at some time during their lives as compared with other nations surveyed.

Basic Science

Manic Mice Show Heightened Sensitivity to Rewards

Reports on an animal study suggesting that the manic stage of bipolar disorder promotes signs of drug abuse vulnerability by enhancing sensitivity to rewards, both natural and drug-related.

Treatment

Combined Treatments Improve Dual Abstinence

Reports on a study investigating the effectiveness of a combined therapy of disulfiram and naltrexone for people who abuse cocaine and alcohol.

Basic Science

Drug Cues Outside Awareness Rapidly Trigger Brain's Emotion Centers

Describes research showing that cocaine abusers appear to have a rapid neural response to reward cues outside of their awareness, possibly signifying vulnerability to relapse.

Basic Science

Low Dopamine Receptor Availability May Promote Cocaine Addiction

Describes findings from an animal study showing that cocaine lowers availability of dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia, an area of the brain that includes portions of the reward system.

Basic Science

Cocaine Locks Rats Into Unrewarding Behaviors

Describes research with rats to better understand cocaine’s effect on the neural signaling in the learning circuits of the brain.

Basic Science

Long-Term Cocaine Self-Administration Depresses Brain Activity

Discusses research exploring how widespread the reduction of neural activity is in the brain with chronic exposure to cocaine.

Epidemiology

Fewer Young Adults Abuse Cocaine and Methamphetamine, National Survey Finds

Reports prevalence rates of illicit drug abuse among youths and young adults based on 2007 data from a national survey of drug use and health.

Treatment

Methadone Reduces Rats' Cocaine Seeking

Reports on an animal study showing that methadone, normally used as a therapy for opioid abuse, may prove to be an effective treatment for cocaine abuse.

Treatment

Aripiprazole Prevents Rats From Resuming Cocaine Seeking

Reports on study results indicating a medication prescribed for schizophrenia and manic phases of bipolar disorder shows promise as a cocaine addiction treatment.

Basic Science

Brain Proteins Differ in Cocaine-Overdose Victims

Describes research findings showing differences in protein concentrations in the brain pleasure centers of people who died from cocaine overdose as compared with those who did not abuse the drug.

Director's Perspective

New Vaccines Are Being Developed Against Addiction and Relapse

Highlights NIDA-funded research to develop vaccines against addiction to drugs such as cocaine, nicotine, phencyclidine (PCP), and methamphetamine.

Prevention

Reducing Postpartum Drug Use

Highlights a computerized intervention that reduced new mothers' drug abuse in the first 4 months postpartum as reported in a clinical trial of 107 women who abused drugs.

Basic Science

Mice With Genetic Alteration Eschew Cocaine

Reports on a study involving researchers who successfully desensitized mice to cocaine by genetically altering their dopamine transporters.

Long-Term Cocaine Abuse Linked With Impaired Heart Function

Summarizes research on the effects of long-term regular cocaine abuse on the cardiovascular system in African Americans.
Basic Science

Cocaine Can Mobilize Stored Dopamine

Describes a study showing that cocaine, which increases dopamine levels, also can tap into an intracellular dopamine reserve pool.

Chronic Cocaine Abusers Have Occult Insomnia in Early Abstinence

Reports on research of chronic cocaine abusers who may feel they are sleeping better during early abstinence revealed that the opposite may be true.

Neuropeptide Promotes Drug-Seeking and Craving in Rats

Reports on two studies indicating that orexin, a neuropeptide that stimulates eating and regulates wakefulness, also fosters animals' drug seeking and craving responses to drugs.
Basic Science

Gene Experiment Confirms a Suspected Cocaine Action

Reports on the work of addiction researchers who are learning how acute and chronic cocaine exposure regulates certain genes, based on knowledge from developmental and cancer biology.

Basic Science

Impacts of Drugs on Neurotransmission

Discusses the central importance of studying drugs' effects on neurotransmission and describes some of the most common experimental methods used in this research.

Abstinent Patients Continue to Show Benefits of Treatment

Reports on data that reviewing the benefits of addiction treatment among abstinent men as compared with those who continued to abuse cocaine.

Serotonin System May Have Potential as a Target for Cocaine Medications

Describes investigations to advance the development of potential drug abuse relapse prevention agents by targeting specific receptors of the neurochemical serotonin.

Behavioral Response to Novelty Foreshadows Neurological Response to Cocaine

Describes evidence supporting the view that developmental differences in brain systems that use the neurotransmitter dopamine underlie age differences in susceptibility to drug abuse.

Brain Changes Accompany Cocaine Withdrawal

Summarizes an animal study of the neural changes in the amygdala portion of the brain that occur as a result of cocaine exposure followed by withdrawal of the drug.

Cocaine Abusers' Pretreatment Cue Responses Predict Recovery Success

Reports on the work of researchers who used brain images to correlate cocaine-addicted patients' regional brain responses to drug cues with their outcomes in subsequent treatment.

Cocaine Craving Activates Brain Reward Structures; Cocaine "High" Dampens Them

Reports on a study that documenting changing emotional and neurobiological responses to cocaine with successive doses during a single session of drug taking.
NIDA @ Work

How Drug Abuse Affects the Brain and Alters Behavior Are Key Questions Driving Division's Work

Discusses the work of NIDA’s Division of Basic Neuroscience and Behavioral Research, the Institute’s locus for studies into the fundamental brain mechanisms underlying drug abuse and addiction.

Methylphenidate for Comorbid Cocaine Abuse, ADHD

Describes an inpatient study investigating the effectiveness of sustained-release methylphenidate as a treatment for cocaine-addiction patients with ADHD.

Brain Mechanism Turns Off Cocaine-Related Memory in Rats

Describes a series of experiments that have added to evidence that a brain enzyme controls key memory processes that link drug experiences, the surroundings in which they take place, and the urge to repeat them.
NIDA Notes

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